Bangladesh lies between latitudes 20° and 27°N, and longitudes 88° and 93°E. Bangladesh is in the low-lying Ganges–Brahmaputra River Delta or Ganges Delta. This delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna also known as "Yamuna"), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial soil deposited by these rivers has created some of the most fertile plains in the world. Bangladesh has 57 trans-boundary rivers, making water issues politically complicated to resolve – in most cases as the lower riparian state to India. Most parts of Bangladesh are less than 12 m (39.4 ft) above the sea level, and it is believed that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 m (3.28 ft).
In south east Bangladesh experiments have been done since the sixties to 'build with nature'. By implementing cross dams, the natural accretion of silt has created new land. With Dutch funding, the Bangladeshi government began to help develop this new land in the late 1970s. The effort has since become a multiagency operation building roads, culverts, embankments, cyclone shelters, toilets and ponds, as well as distributing land to settlers. By fall 2010, the program will have allotted some 27,000 acres (10,927 ha) to 21,000 families.
The highest point in Bangladesh is in Mowdok range at 1,052 m (3,451 ft) in the Chattogram Hill Tracts to the southeast of the country. Cox's Bazar, south of the city of Chattogram, has a beach that stretches uninterrupted over 120 kilometres (75 mi).
Bangladesh has a subtropical monsoon climate characterized by wide seasonal variations in rainfall, high temperatures and humidity. There are three distinct seasons in Bangladesh: a hot, humid summer from March to June; a cool, rainy monsoon season from June to October; and a cool, dry winter from October to March. In general, maximum summer temperatures range between 30°C and 40°C. April is the warmest month in most parts of the country. January is the coldest month, when the average temperature for most of the country is about 10°C.
Heavy rainfall is characteristic of Bangladesh. With the exception of the relatively dry western region of Rajshahi, where the annual rainfall is about 1600 mm, most parts of the country receive at least 2000 mm of rainfall per year. Because of its location just south of the foothills of the Himalayas, where monsoon winds turn west and northwest, the regions in northeastern Bangladesh receives the greatest average precipitation, sometimes over 4000 mm per year. About 80 percent of Bangladesh's rain falls during the monsoon season.
The Typhoon season begins in August and lasts to end November. Warnings are not always very effective in Bangladesh, due to the bad Infrastructure of this country. Be careful when you travel around in the coastal areas of Bangladesh in this period, and try to follow the weather forecasts carefully. Typhoons have often catastrofal effects, and can cause floodings that can sometimes last for serveral weeks.
Lightweight cotton clothing is advised throughout the year, with an umbrella or raincoat for the monsoon season. Be prepared for high temperatures and humidity, no matter where you go. A sweater and warmer clothing is advised for cooler evenings. Warmer clothing is advised for the northern mountainous areas of Bangladesh, which can have quite cold winters.
The Climate of Bangladesh can be divided in different climate zones. The central and southern part can be classified as Aw climate, a hot, tropical climate with all months above 18°C and a dry period in the winter. The northern mountainous areas can be classified as Cwa climate; a Temperated, humid climate with the warmest month above 22°C and a dry period in the winter.
Bangladesh is now widely recognized to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as climate change, each seriously affecting agriculture, water & food security, human health and shelter. It is believed that in the coming decades the rising sea level alone will create more than 20 million climate refugees. Bangladeshi water is contaminated with arsenic frequently because of the high arsenic contents in the soil. Up to 77 million people are exposed to toxic arsenic from drinking water. Bangladesh is among the countries most prone to natural floods, tornados and cyclones.
Bangladesh is a gift of nature in richest of scenic beauty. Nature has bestowed so much beauty on no other country in the world as on Bangladesh. Her beauties consist in bounty, variety, flora and fauna.NATURE'S PLAYGROUND: Bangladesh is the richest country in the world regarding the beauties of nature. She is Nature's playground. Having tropical climate she has abundant sunshine. On the other hand there is sufficient rain and cloud. Light and shade come to the land by turns. She enjoys the pleasures of sunny weather, variety of colours and displays an unending ocean of greenery. A land of eternal verdure, her beauties in the richness and variety, are simply enchanting and amusing.
Bangladesh is a country of scenic beauties. He green fields and fields overflowing with golden crops, the clear and cloudy sky, moonlit and pitch-dark night – all these present scenes of romantic chearm and beauty. The chirping of birds in the morning brilliant sunrays of glow of the setting sun on the broad expanse of the sea and river, the moon with her balmy flood of light and numerous twinkling stars at night have turned Bangladesh a land of romance and beauty. Each of her different natural regions has its own charm and beauty. There is a great number of places in Bangladesh with uncommon scenic beauty which fascinates the lovers of beauty. Rangamati, Bandarban, Cox'x Bazar, Kaptai, Paharpur, Sylhet, Coart bari and the Sundarbans, among others are blessed with the most charming natural beauty. Shuvalong spring, madhabkund cascade and mahasthan garh, all these are most worth witnessing.
Beauties of river-scenes in Bangladesh are also worth praising . Sparkling of night in the river water on a moonlit night has a spectacular beauty. Sights and sounds on either side of the river, variety and beauty are incomparable with the scenery of any other country of the world. Different scenes are presented at different times of the day. People can feed their eyes on the unbroken view of a variety of sights on the banks of a river. The grand spectacle that the river offers on a moon-lit night is simply bewitching. All around there is a deep silence which is sometimes broken by the splashing dip of oars and the songs of boatmen. The broad bosom of the river flashes like silver in the flood of moonlight.
six seasons with there distinctive robes on come in procession, play and depart. Through there is intense heat in summer, there are the gifts of delicious fruits. Through there are floods during the rainy season. It is the season which blesses us with greenery, In autumn there is the game of hide and seek among the clouds, the blue sky and enchanting moonlight at night. In winter fields full of winter crops and golden paddy, ready for reaping , present a panoramic view. In spring Bangladesh seems to be a box of flowers whence sweet fragrance comes out.
The tall and straight trees on the sea shore look like the long hair of a lady stretching upto ankle. The bubbles collected at the edge of the sea look like a necklace of a lady. Reflection of twilight on the bosom of the sea present a crimson colour that attracts the tourists to a great extent. It's gainsaid that Cox's Bazar sea beach is the longest one in the world. So there is profuse wealth of natural beauties in Bangladesh, Everybody has to admit that it is a matchless beauty spot in the world. Everybody exclaims in joy and wonder at the unforgettable and unimaginable beauty of this land. On lookers are immersed in the fathomless depth of the ocean of beauty.